Information

What is the most effective maximum work duration per day?

What is the most effective maximum work duration per day?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

A related question asks about the best work-break schedule for an effective eight hour work day.

This question presupposes that eight hours of work per day is a good duration and that all you need is to optimize your work-break schedule. But research seems to hint that alertness and productivity might increase if you shorten your workday: A survey (Bielenski, 1994) asking managers about their experiences with part time work in eight European countries found a better quality of products or services. Part time work here includes all different kinds of reduced weekly working hours. A German (Infratest Sozialforschung, 1985) and American (Beyer, 1986) study on flexible work time models (including part time and gliding time) found an increase in production volume and quality, higher job satisfaction, and a decrease in lateness and absences.

Research also shows that performance increases if you increase your sleeping hours (e.g. from eight to ten hours per night), and it is a banal truth that the the amount of sleep that you can or want to allow yourself is directly related to the amount of work: eight hours of work plus taking care of the rest of your life only leave you so many hours to rest. So maybe the question of breaks doesn't even arise anymore, when you awake relaxed and highly attentive after enough sleep, and when you work focussed for four hours without breaks, knowing that you'll be free to enjoy yourself for the rest of the day.

Assuming on the one hand that you do in fact need time to get things done and cannot speed up your work frequency and shorten working hours indefinitely; and assuming on the other hand that you will get tired and work less well after a certain time; then there should be a turning point somewhere, where working longer or shorter decreases your productivity.

Of course the exact location of this point (and the optimal per day work duration) will differ for different kinds of tasks, so there will not be one optimum for everything. If there is more research on this topic than you can or want to cover in your answer, please focus on "intellectual work" (like that of scientists or in administration).

Question:

Is there research into how long you should work per day to be most effective?

I'm looking for a comprehensive and definite answer on this, and therefore I am especially interested in recent meta-analyses and overview articles, some of which might be published in handbooks or encyclopedias of occupational psychology and not available on the web.

No untested theories and no personal anecdotes, please.


Sources:

  • Beyer, H. T. (1986). Betriebliche Arbeitszeitflexibilisierung. München: Vahlen.
    • Bielenski, H. (ed.) (1994). New Forms of Work and Activity. Survey of Experiences at Establishment Level in Eight European Countries. Shankill: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.
    • Infratest Sozialforschung (1985). Flexible Arbeitszeiten: Erfahrungen aus der Praxis. Humanisierung des Arbeitslebens, vol. 68. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

This is a part-answer to your question and it doesn't come from occupational psychology, but from expertise research.

Findings from Expertise Research

In their seminal paper on the role of deliberate practice for the acquisition of expert performance, Ericsson et al. (1993) report a number of constraints that play a role in the acquisition of expert performance. One of these constraints is the effort constraint. What is meant by this is that, in order to improve one's skill, one has to engage in deliberate practice, which by definition is an effortful activity that requires full concentration. It is clear that such an activity cannot be kept up for very large amounts of time. Ericsson et al. cite works by Welford (1968) and Woodford & Schlosberg (1954) (which I haven't read) that compare the efficiency of practice durations ranging from 1-8 hr a day. These studies find that there is

essentially no benefit from durations exceeding 4 hr per day and reduced benefit from practice exceeding 2 hr. (Ericsson et al., 1993, p.370)

The authors then report that studies on the aquisition of typing skill by Baddely & Longman (1978) and Dvorak et al. (1936), and studies on other perceptual motor skills (Henshaw & Holman, 1930) which

indicate that the effective duration of deliberate practice is may be closer to 1 hr per day. (Ibid.)

Finally, they cite a study by Pirelli & J.R. Anderson (1985) that found

no increased learning from doubling the number of training trials per session. (Ibid.)

Thereafter, Ericsson et al. (1993) turn to more intellectually demanding domains. They report on data from financially independent writers, who

tend to write only 4 hr per day, leaving the rest of the day for rest and recuperation (Cowley, 1959; Plimpton, 1977). (Ibid., p.371)

In their own study 1, which investigated violinists at music college, the authors found that the best students practiced on average 3.5 hr per day.

Maximum vs. Typical Performance

From these findings it seems that the optimal duration lies somewhere between 1 and 4 hours. But it's important to note that this only holds for conditions of maximal effort and full concentration. Furthermore these studies investigate the acquisition, not the execution of a skill, which presumably is more important in the workplace. I would still argue that they can still be relevant in a work context.

In io-psychology there is the distinction between maximum and typical performance. Everything I have said so far obviously refers to maximum performance. The intellectual work of a scientist that you mention in your question might fall into this category. I can also imagine that a software developer needs full concentration. Probably, though, periods that require maximum performance and those that "only" require typical performance alternate. The time limit for typical performance may be much longer.

So my answer is only a part answer in at least two ways: First it only provides information about the time limit for maximum performance. Second, the studies that I cite have not actually been done within an occupational setting.

References:
Baddeley, A. D., & Longman, D. J. A. (1978). The influence of length and frequency of training session on the rate of learning to type. Ergonomics, 21(8), 627-635.
Cowley, M.(Ed.). (1953). Writers at work: The Paris review interviews, second series. New York: Penguin Books.
Dvorak, A., Merrick, N. L., Dealey, W. L., & Ford, G. C. (1936). Typewriting behavior. New York: American Book Company.
Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363-406. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363 PDF
Pirolli, P. L., & Anderson, J. R. (1985). The role of practice in fact retrieval. Journal of experimental psychology: Learning, memory, and cognition, 11(1), 136.PDF
Plimpton, G. (Ed.). (1976). Writers at work: The Paris review interviews. New York: Viking Press.
Welford, A.T. (1968). Fundamentals of skill. London: Methuen.
Woodworth, R. S., & Schlosberg, H. (1954). Experimental psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.


It would appear that a 6 hour workday would obtain better results of productivity than a >=8 hour day.

In discussing the optimum length of a working day, I have taken a neurobiological approach and an occupational approach. As the individual is not an isolated organism; social and environmental demands, mean that in determining what is a most productive workday, needs to encompass the fact that the individual has other tasks to complete within a 24 hour cycle. The need for sleep, to maximise performance, also needs to be taken into consideration, within this context.

There are been much research showing the relationship between excessive work hours, resulting fatigue and decline in cognitive ability. The effect is also magnified as the working week progresses. Following this, there is evidence that a reduced working day (from 8 hour) increases productivity:

Working time and productivity International Labour Office Geneva

The Effects of Working Time on Productivity and Firm Performance: a research synthesis paper; has examined this subject extensively:

a. Reduction in hours and worker productivity evidence
The potential theoretical and practical impact of a reduction in hours on productivity was assessed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) over twenty years ago (White, 1987). Improvements in the efficiency of labour utilization were evident from a century's worth of research that found some productivity improvement following a reduction in hours, depending, of course, on the accompanying conditions and responses, in the medium if not the short term. Four types of reductions were distinguished, all of which remain relevant to today's conditions. Each creates its own potential for productivity improvements that would offset much, if not all, of the initial costs associated with shorter working hours. The four types are: reductions in excessive hours, gradual reductions in standard hours, accelerated reductions in standard hours, and individualized options for reducing working hours…

a. Interactions between duration and employee-centered flexibility of work schedules
Importantly, the effect of working time flexibility often interacts with the duration of working hours. Greater discretion or control over the timing of their work helps workers to alleviate some of the negative effects of long hours on the incidence of work-related injuries, illnesses and time stress (Boden, 2005; Costa et al., 2006; Dembe et al., 2007; Hughes and Parkes, 2007)…
Reduced variability of hours has almost as much influence as higher flexibility on work/life satisfaction (Costa et al., 2006).


There has also been research into the best time of day to work. Research suggests that the peak times for alertness are mid to late morning (approx 11am), followed by another, lessor, peak in the late afternoon (approx 5.30pm).

Circadian Rhythms.

Human beings have natural Ultradian cycles, that govern our behaviour. I am focusing on the circadian rhythm, which is the natural 24 hour cycle that governs our physiology. It would be logical to propose that working within this cycle, as opposed to enforcing routines that are in conflict with this cycle, would be beneficial to finding an optimal working day structure.

Wakefulness
The longer the brain has been awake, the greater the spontaneous firing rates of cerebral cortex neurons with this increase being reversed by sleep. Another effect of wakefulness (which may or may not be related to this) is that it lowers the small stores of glycogen held in the astrocytes that can supply energy to the brain's neurons-one of the functions of sleep, it has been proposed, is to create the opportunity for them to be replenished.

Sleepiness The longer the time spent awake, the greater the drive for sleep… The second factor is circadian, which varies with a 24 hour periodicity and is independent of the amount of preceding sleep or wakefulness… Together, the homeostatic and circadian factors modulate the need for sleep and influence the balance between alertness and sleepiness… Neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness Robert W. McCarley and Christopher M Sinton (2008) doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.3313

The following charts provide a good visual representation of the bodies 24 hour cycle:

The pink line is the predicted alertness
The blue dots are recall data

chart taken from the followup to "Polyphasic Sleep: Facts and Myths" Dr Piotr Wozniak

image courtesy of File:Biological clock human.svg


  • I disagree with rethinking the smaller 90 minute work and break cycles. My explanation for this is given clearly in this answer. There is evidence, even within a shorter workday, that the 90 minute cycle exists and breaks enhance performance. I am going to focus on the optimal total hours of a working day.
  • There are various physical, emotional, mental, financial and environmental factors (eg job stability) that would cause a variation in what an optimal working day would be; so for the purposes of this question I am assuming we are discussing individuals, within the norms for these factors (ie not unwell in these areas or experiencing undue stress).
  • I am assuming that you want the focus of this answer to be on work, rather than sleep. So, without going into discussion about optimal sleep patterns; it follows, logically, that a regular, extended working day of, for example: 16 hours, would prohibit the individual from getting optimal sleep, which in turn affects performance. So, for the sake of this discussion, I am assuming that an optimal work day, takes into account the need to optimize sleep, and that the individual is doing so.
  • I'm not addressing shift work here; as the scope becomes too large.
  • The relationship between optimizing such activity as for example: playing the violin, needs to take into account the effect on the fingers; whereas in office work, there is less propensity for such risk of repetitive strain or injury.
  • There has been research regarding compressed working weeks, the benefits of completely 5 days work on 4 days.

Full-time vs Part-Time work:

The following provides evidence for and against job performance and comparisons between full-time and part-time work hours. It is interesting to note that the difference in these findings could be related to the reward system of the job. The differences in performance, could (and probably are) be linked to the capacity to increase earnings with improved performance vs a fixed wage rate.

Looking at this alone, it would suggest that shorter working hours promote better performance when financial rewards are offered for higher productivity. Which supports the notion of a shorter working day being more optimal for productivity.

Argument for Part-time over Full-time work:
(full-time work is classified as a 40 hour working week)

Part-time workers tend to be more productive, hour for hour, than full-time workers because it is easier to work at peak efficiency for short periods.

An interesting, if not obvious point, made by Berkley University HR. Flexible Work Arrangements: Part-Time Work

A comparison of part-time vs. full-time salespeople from four U.S. direct selling companies that part-timers had greater job satisfaction and less propensity to quit. Part-timers were also better performers as measured by earnings per hour worked.

Another interesting finding in this study, opens a whole avenue for analysis, between having options and motivation upon performance.

When these same respondents were analyzed in terms of other jobs held simultaneously with their direct selling job, some evidence indicated that job satisfaction was lower while earnings per hour and propensity to quit were greater as the extent of other outside employment increased.

Full-time vs. part-time salespeople: A comparison on job satisfaction, performance, and turnover in direct selling Thomas R. Wotruba doi.org/10.1016/0167-8116(90)90014-E

Argument for Full-time over Part-time work:

A interesting note with regard to the differences of work outcomes between full-time and part-time workers; the only notable difference is regard to job, the implication being that full-time workers are more likely to have a more responsible attitude towards their jobs. If the overall working week were to change, this difference would need to be re-examined.

Employees who work fewer hours per week tend to assign less importance to the work outcomes measured in this study.

Differences in the importance of work outcomes between full-time and part-time hospital employees Douglas S. Wakefield1, James P. Curry1, Charles W. Mueller2, James L. Price2 DOI: 10.1002/job.403008010

In studies on employee attitude, their was no difference between full-time and part-time workers.

A meta-analysis was conducted (k =38, N =51,231) to examine the size of the difference between full- and part-time employees on job attitudes. Results indicated that there was little difference between full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) employees on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intentions to leave and facets of job satisfaction.Full-time employees were found to be more involved with their jobs than PT employees.

Job attitudes of part-time vs. full-time workers: A meta-analytic review Todd J. Thorsteinson DOI: 10.1348/0963179037659136

In terms of performing tasks beyond immediate job criteria, the results sway towards full-time employees rating better, but this is also not clearly defined. This could be linked towards employment attitude.

There are two types of performance: in-role and extra-role work performance or OCB… Marchese and Ryan (2001) found significant differences between full-time and part-time workers in job performance. Full-time employees had a higher level of performance. Another study showed no significant difference between full-time and part-time workers in terms of performance (Wotruba, 1990)

A Comparison Between Full and Part-Time Lodging Employees on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Job Performance Abdullah Al Omar, Jet al


Shorter workdays:

There is clear evidence that a reduction of workday to 6 hours benefits work performance. This could be due to many complex, pyscho-social factors.

There are some company-based interventions that have studied the effects of a reduction in workhours from 7 or more to 6 hours. In an intervention study among female health care workers, a decrease in workhours (to a 6-hour workday) resulted in improvements in the social life of the workers and in moderate improvements in well-being when the group was compared with a reference group with no changes in workhours. In another study, a shift to 6-hour workdays was followed by a reduction of neck-shoulder and back pain in three separate organizations when fulltime payment of the workers was retained. According to Anttila, the benefits of shorter workhours were the most apparent in regard to social life, but they also introduced some positive effects on the perceived stress of the workers…

Scand J Work Environ Health 2006;32(6, special issue):502-514 Workhours in relation to work stress, recovery and health by Mikko Harma, MD

Physical effect of shorter workday:

The shortening of regular workdays from >7 hours to 6 hours may considerably reduce the prevalence of neck-shoulder pain among persons with physically demanding care work. The potential health benefits should encourage intervention studies also in other occupations with increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

A shorter workday as a means of reducing the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders by Ebba L Wergeland, PhD, et al Scand J Work Environ Health 2003;29(1):27-34

As @Jens noted in Ericsson's study.

best students practiced on average 3.5 hr per day

This, along with the evidence about attention and circadian rhythms, perhaps, suggests that this is an optimal time for mental acuity. (not taking into consideration the physical restraints of finger strain on violinists).

The double peak of alertness within the circadian cycle gives credence to the notion of a "siesta" of prolonged, daily work break, to boost productivity, but this argument is not as straightforward as it may seem on the surface.


Studies which may be helpful:

This study 15 Indus. & Lab. Rel. Rev. 307 (1961-1962) Shorter Hours - In Theory and Practice; Dankert, Clyde E. gives detailed analysis, where output optimum is examined and optimum working day and optimum working week evaluated.

Orthostatic symptoms, blood pressure and working postures of factory and service workers over an observed workday Suzy Ngomoa, et al doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2007.11.004

I do not have access to these articles


Associated References:

A META-ANALYSIS OF WORK DEMAND STRESSORS AND JOB PERFORMANCE: EXAMINING MAIN AND MODERATING EFFECTS SIMONA GILBOA1, ARIE SHIROM1, YITZHAK FRIED2, CARY COOPER3 DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00113.x

Extended workdays: Effects on performance and ratings offatigue and alertness ROGER R. ROSA DANIEL D. WHEELER and JOEL S. WARM MICHAEL J. COLLIGAN

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS OF PERFORMANCE: NEW TRENDS 2000, Vol. 17, No. 6 , Pages 719-732 Julie Carrier1,2 and Timothy H. Monk3 doi/abs/10.1081/CBI-100102108

Carrier, J., & Monk, T. H. (2000). Circadian rhythms of performance: New trends. Chronobiology International, 17, 719-732. doi:10.1081/CBI-100102108.

Schmidt, C., Collette, C., Cajochen, C., & Peigneux, P. (2007). A time to think: Circadian rhythms in human cognition.Cognitive Neuropsychology,24, 755-789.doi:10.1080/ 02643290701754158

Health effects of shift work and extended hours of work J M Harrington

Adverse changes in mood and cognitive performance of house officers after night duty. D. I. Orton and J. H. Gruzelier

Extended workdays: Effects of 8-hour and 12-hour rotating shift schedules on performance, subjective alertness, sleep patterns, and psychosocial variables DOI:10.1080/02678378908256877 Roger R. Rosaa, Michael J. Colligana & Paul Lewisb

Professor Cary Cooper CBE publications

Changes in Electromyographic Activity Associated with Occupational Stress and Poor Performance in the Workplace Frank E. Gomer Behavioral Science Applications, Yellow Springs, Ohio Louis D. Silverstein Sperry Corporation, Phoenix, Arizona W. Keith Berg University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Donald L. Lassiter Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia

Job content and working time: the scope for joint change DOI:10.1080/00140139108967349 KAZUTAKA KOGIa

IS PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT BENEFICIAL FOR FIRM PRODUCTIVITY? Annemarie Nelen, Andries De Gripa, Didier Fouarge


Note:

There is much anecdotal evidence of professional working 4 or 5 hour days to maximise their performance; one example being an author writing a book.


What is the most effective maximum work duration per day? - Psychology

Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is broadly defined despite high variability in the occurrence and duration of PAF episodes.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to identify rhythm patterns in a large cohort of individuals with PAF who wore an ambulatory single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) patch sensor as part of standard clinical care.

Methods

We performed a retrospective analysis of longitudinal rhythm data obtained from 13,293 individuals with PAF.

Results

In this study, 7934 men and 5359 women with PAF wore an ambulatory single-lead ECG patch sensor for 11.4 days on average, experiencing 1,041,504 PAF episodes. The median daily rate of PAF was 1.21 episodes per day (interquartile range [IQR] 0.31–4.99), and the median maximum duration per individual was 7.5 hours (IQR 2.4–18.6 hours). There was an inverse relationship between the duration of PAF episodes and the frequency in which they occurred, which became pronounced at moderate and high overall burdens of AF. This produced a spectrum of PAF flanked by 2 distinct subtypes of the disease: the staccato subtype, characterized by many, short AF episodes and the legato subtype, characterized by fewer, longer episodes. Longer but less frequent episodes became more common with increasing age. Only 49.4% of individuals experienced an episode in the first 24 hours of monitoring, increasing to 89.7% after 1 week of monitoring.

Conclusion

We identified subtypes of the disease that we labeled staccato and legato. Although further study is required, these subtypes may result from differing elements of pathophysiology and disease progression, and may confer differing stroke risks.


Transfer to an Alternate Position

You may choose to temporarily transfer the employee to an available alternative position for which the employee is qualified and which better accommodates recurring periods of intermittent or reduced schedule leave than does the employee’s regular position.

Temporary transfer is only permitted if an employee needs intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule that is foreseeable based on planned medical treatment for the employee, a family member, or a covered service member, including during a period of recovery from one’s own serious health condition, a serious health condition of a spouse, parent, son, or daughter, or a serious injury or illness of a covered service member, or if the employer agrees to permit intermittent or reduced schedule leave for the birth of a child or for placement of a child for adoption or foster care.

The alternative position must have equivalent pay and benefits, but does not have to have equivalent duties. The employer may increase the pay and benefits of an existing alternative position, to make them equivalent to the pay and benefits of the employee’s regular job.

You may also transfer the employee to a part-time job with the same hourly rate of pay and benefits, provided the employee is not required to take more leave than is medically necessary. For example, an employee desiring to take leave in increments of 4 hours per day could be transferred to a half-time job, or could remain in the employee’s same job on a part-time schedule, paying the same hourly rate as the employee’s previous job and enjoying the same benefits.

You may not eliminate benefits which otherwise would not be provided to part-time employees however, you may proportionately reduce benefits (e.g., vacation leave) where the employer’s normal practice is to base such benefits on the number of hours worked.

Unlike a “light-duty” assignment, a transfer to an alternative position does not require the employee’s consent. Beware, however, if the employee is also protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act and can do his or her existing job with reasonable accommodation, you may not be able to transfer him or her.

In the next installment, we’ll discuss managing intermittent leave and how it applies to fluctuating work schedules.


How Much Time You Should Actually Spend Reading Each Day, According To Science

According to a 2014 Time magazine article, Americans read (in their words) “a paltry 19 minutes a day.” (19 minutes is pretty paltry.) The stat comes from a study conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, who also noted that younger Americans, aged 25-34, read just four minutes a day — really, who are you people? — while American adults over 75 read upwards of one hour each day — aka: my peeps.

Now, as a book-lover, I just have to say: the ideal amount of time to spend reading each day is basically all of the time. But, unrealistic is that is, (because: bills, food, laundry) at least as much time as is available which, I promise you, is more than four minutes, no matter how busy I might be. But, national stats and personal preferences aside, is there actually a science-backed number of minutes you should spend reading each day? After all, we already know reading helps improve memory and cognitive function, increases empathy and reduces stress, can improve social skills, and actually increases not only your intelligence but your learning capacity as well. Chances are, all those benefits aren’t happening in just four minutes.

It turns out, there are some science-backed guidelines for how much you should read every day. And the numbers may surprise you.


Effect of exercise intervention dosage on reducing visceral adipose tissue: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are deleterious fat deposits in the human body and can be effectively reduced by exercise intervention. Despite well-established exercise prescriptions are available, the effective dosage of exercise for reducing VAT requires verification.

Objectives

The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine the most effective exercise dosage (modality, intensity, duration, and amount) for decreasing VAT.

Methods

Nine databases (EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, Airiti Library, and PerioPath) were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials that objectively assessed VAT. The arms of included studies covered with different exercise modalities and dosage. Relevant databases were searched through February 2020.

Results

Of the 34 studies (n = 1962) included in systematic review, 32 (n = 1900) were pooled for pairwise or network meta-analysis. The results indicated that high-intensity interval training (SMD −0.39, 95% CI −0.60 to −0.18) and aerobic exercise (SMD –0.26, 95% CI –0.38 to −0.13) of at least moderate intensity were beneficial for reducing VAT. By contrast, resistance exercise, aerobic exercise combined with resistance exercise, and sprint interval training had no significant effects. No difference in VAT reduction was observed between exercising more or less than 150 min per week. Meta-regression revealed that the effect of VAT reduction was not significantly influenced by an increase in the duration of or amount of exercise in an exercise program. The effective dosage of exercise for reducing VAT was three times per week for 12 to 16 weeks, while duration per session for aerobic exercise was 30–60 min, and either less than 30 min or 30–60 min of high-intensity interval training accomplished sufficient energy expenditure to impact VAT.

Conclusions

These results can inform exercise prescriptions given to the general population for improving health by reducing VAT.


Is there more to light therapy dosing?

While the information laid out here is adequate to measure dose and calculate application time for general use, light therapy dosing is a much more complicated matter, scientifically.

  • J/cm² is how everyone measures dose now, however, the body is 3 dimensional. Dose can also be measured in J/cm³, which is how much energy is applied to a volume of cells, rather than just applied the surface area of skin.
  • Is J/cm² (or ³) even a good way to measure dose? A 1 J/cm² dose can be applied to 5cm² of skin, while the same 1 J/cm² dose could be applied to 50cm² of skin. The dose per area of skin is the same (1J & 1J) in each case, but the total energy applied (5J vs 50J) is vastly different, potentially leading to different systemic outcomes.
  • Different strengths of light can have different effects. We know that the following strength and time combinations give the same total dose, but the results wouldn’t necessarily be the same in studies:
    • 2mW/cm² x 500secs = 1J/cm²
    • 500mW/cm² x 2secs = 1J/cm²

    Module 6

    The specificity principle
    - suggests that your adaptations are going to be specific to the demands imposed on the system.

    Progression
    - relates to the systematic and progressive application of load. (reduce risk of overtraining, burnout, injury)

    The principle of diminishing returns
    - suggests that individuals adapt differently at different
    stages of the training cycle. (e.g. non exercise > massive response vs super trained)

    The volume and intensity of training are two key variables that you can manipulate in order
    to achieve the desired overload and progression in your exercise program.

    Volume and intensity are often manipulated in a periodised manner to ensure peak physiological
    condition occurs at a specific point in the training cycle.

    Periodisation of training can also be more complex with many different training units or cycles contributing to the overall training program.
    This can facilitate the simultaneous development of different components of fitness.
    Each of these training cycles is called a macrocycle, mesocycle or microcycle depending on the duration of the training cycle.
    You can see that exercise training programs can range from quite simple to very complex.

    It is recommended that they start exercising at a moderate intensity and increase their volume and intensity steadily to improve fitness. Their perceived exertion should not exceed 3-4 Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and the intensity of the activity should be able to be conducted whilst maintaining a conversation uninterrupted for 60 minutes.

    It is recommended that they start exercising at a moderate intensity and increase their volume and intensity steadily to improve fitness. Their perceived exercertion should not exceed 4-5 RPE and the intensity of the activity should be one that does not cause a noticeable change in breathing rate.

    It is recommended that they start exercising at a light to moderate
    intensity and increase their volume and intensity slowly. Their perceived exertion should not exceed 3-4 RPE and the intensity of the activity should be able to be conducted whilst maintaining a conversation uninterrupted for 30-60 minutes duration.

    Overload: The overload principle suggests that you need to load or stress the system in order to achieve adaptation.

    Specificity: The specificity principle suggests that your adaptations are going to be specific to the demands imposed on the system.

    Progression: Progression relates to the systematic and progressive application of load.

    Diminishing Returns: The principle of diminishing returns suggests that individuals adapt differently at different stages of the training cycle. The greatest gains typically occur in beginners with more experienced exercisers achieving a smaller rate of improvement.

    Frequency, Intensity, Timing, Type

    Overload, Specificity, Progression, Diminishing returns, Reversibility

    Deload, Specialty, Progression, Variability

    1. The level of work performed that is reflected through speed, grade, watts, or intensity level:

    2. The amount of weight lifted:

    3. The frequency and duration of an exercise bout:

    4. The number of sets and repetitions, often includes the time under tension as well:

    Progression is the systematic application of overload to promote long-term benefits and generally follows an inverse relationship in which, when intensity increases, the training volume decreases somewhat proportionally.

    A. FITT is best used to achieve a goal by working out the fitness of the client, intensity, time of day of sessions and the type of exercise
    for the session

    B. FITT concept is best used to establish core foundations, intensity or volume, timing of session and the type such as strength or endurance.

    C. FITT concept is best used to achieve fitness through intensity, timing of the session and the type such as strength or endurance.

    Common signs and symptoms of overtraining include:

    A. A runner planning for a State event in 9 months may plan a 39 week macrocycle to include endurance and intensity. Within this, numerous microcycles of 3-4 week blocks could focus on things such as building endurance, then broken down into mesocycles lasting roughly 1 week that compliment the mesocycle goal such as overloading for endurance adaptations.

    B. A runner planning for a State event in 9 months may plan a 39 week mesocycle to include endurance and intensity Within this, numerous macrocycle 3-4 week blocks could focus on things such as building endurance, then broken down into microcycles lasting roughly 1 week that compliment the mesocycle goal such as overloading for endurance adaptations.

    C. A cyclist planning for a National event in 1 year may plan a 52 week macrocycle to include endurance, intensity, competition and recovery. Within this, numerous mesocycle 3-4 week blocks could focus on things such as endurance or power on the bike, then broken down into microcycles lasting roughly 1 or 2 weeks that compliment the mesocycle goal such as overloading for endurance adaptations.


    How Often Should You Really Do HIIT Workouts?

    Ahh, HIIT. It’s the workout everybody brags about doing, day in and day out, because they have #BodyGoals that they’re here to, er, hit.

    HIIT, or high-intensity interval training, wasn’t meant to be done every day. And if you’re able to actually bust out that level of intensity five, six, or seven days per week, you’re likely doing it wrong.

    We know — it’s not what you want to hear.

    But these super-quick routines were created so you could perform your chosen form of cardio at maximum effort, says Joey Thurman, certified personal trainer and author of “365 Health and Fitness Hacks That Could Save Your Life.”

    “The idea is to elevate your heart rate for a brief period, followed by resting for a given period,” Thurman explains. “You can train in a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio (sprint for 30 seconds, rest for 30), a 1:2 ratio (sprint for 30 seconds, rest for 1 minute), a 1:3 ratio (sprint for 30 seconds, rest for 1.5 minutes), and so forth.”

    The key, he says, is to go at your maximum effort during the sprints.

    A lot of studies that show the benefits of extremely intense, short bouts of exercise are a result of people working at their give-it-all-you-got effort, says Dalton Wong, certified personal trainer and author of “The Feelgood Plan: Happier, Healthier & Slimmer in 15 Minutes a Day.”

    “True HIIT is like sprinting, and it should make you feel like your gas tank is completely empty,” Wong says. So if you’re doing a 30-second sprint during a HIIT interval, you shouldn’t be able to get to second 31 without wanting to collapse.

    Which means that if you’re able to go for even one second longer — or pencil in another HIIT session tomorrow — you probably didn’t go hard enough. We hate to be so blunt, but that’s the truth.

    Most people aren’t used to pushing themselves as hard as is necessary for HIIT, especially for a HIIT workout that’s as short as 7 or 10 minutes, because it’s extremely uncomfortable.

    We all want the fastest, most efficient way to get in shape so we can do other awesome things with our lives. So the idea of being able to work out for such a short amount of time and get results, rather than slogging away on the treadmill for a longer time, sounds like a no-brainer.

    The first benefit everyone talks about is, of course, the fat burning. “Research shows that intervals can repair your metabolism by reducing inflammation, forcing the body to improve its ability to use and burn energy,” says Thurman.

    This means you’ll burn fat at a faster rate, utilize energy better during workouts, and continue to burn calories long after your workout is done. This is a phenomenon known as EPOC, or excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    Plus, you’ll simply be able to do more during those sweat sessions. “Think of it this way: If I were to have you sprint as far as you could for as long as you could, how long would you last? One minute, two minutes, three minutes?” asks Thurman.

    “By adding rest periods and then going back [to the effort interval], it allows you to cumulatively sprint for a longer period of time. So, if you performed ten 30-second sprints, you’ll sprint for a total of five minutes. [That’s] much longer than anyone could sprint at once.”

    And, when HIIT is done correctly (and paired with a solid nutrition plan), you can blast belly fat and improve heart health. Wewege M, et al. (2017). The effects of high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training on body composition in overweight and obese adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. DOI: 10.1111/obr.12532] [Zhaowei K, et al. (2016). Comparison of high-intensity interval training and moderate-to-vigorous continuous training for cardiometabolic health and exercise enjoyment in obese young women: A randomized controlled trial. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158589

    Glad you asked. The obvious risk is injury. Your risk of getting injured due to overtraining skyrockets when you don’t give your muscle tissue enough time to repair and grow, says Thurman.

    “It falls along the same line of not working the same muscle group when lifting two days in a row — your body, joints, and mind will eventually wear out,” he says.

    And don’t forget: Mental burnout is a real thing. “If you do too much HIIT, after a while your mind will start to lag behind,” says Thurman. “You’ll feel tired, fatigued, and not look forward to your workout. If you’re not mentally invested, your performance will suffer, as well as your form, and that can again lead to overuse and injury.”

    Two to three days a week is a solid amount of HIIT, says Wong, as long as you build in 24 hours of rest and recovery between sessions.

    So if your goal is to work out four times per week, he recommends two HIIT sessions and two resistance training sessions. Whether you go full-body on those resistance days or break it into an upper-body day and a lower-body day is up to you.

    Keep your programming in mind: “If you do leg-intensive resistance training one day, then do HIIT sprints the next, your legs will be sore and not fully recovered for the HIIT,” says Thurman. “Try to schedule a rest day or yoga in between to allow optimal results.”

    Basically, we’re not telling you not to do HIIT. We’re also not telling you to skip exercising on the reg. Fitting in some form of movement each day is good for both your physical and mental health — that’s something all the experts agree on.

    But if you’ve maxed out your three-times-a-week HIIT sessions or are just phoning it in, schedule a yoga class or hop on the bike for a casual ride in the sunshine. You’ve earned it.


    Move More and Sit Less

    Older adults should move more and sit less throughout the day. Keep in mind, some physical activity is better than none. Older adults who sit less and do any amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity gain some health benefits. Your health benefits will also increase with the more physical activity that you do.

    Learn more about how to measure your physical fitness level.

    If you&rsquore 65 years of age or older, are generally fit, and have no limiting health conditions, you can follow the recommendations listed below.

    Want to learn more about important health benefits for older adults? Check out the Move Your Way SM Factsheet for Older Adults pdf icon external icon . [PDF-1.3MB]


    This Is How Much Time You Should Spend On Social Media Per Day

    It’s no secret that scrolling through endless images and announcements of engagements, vacations, new babies and job promotions can make you feel like you’re not accomplishing anything. But it’s pretty much impossible to log off forever and never look back.

    Here’s the good news: There might be a sweet spot when it comes to the amount of time you spend on social media. Keeping your use down to just 30 minutes a day can lead to better mental health outcomes, according to research being published in December in the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.

    Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania looked at social media use among 143 undergraduate students in two separate trials. One trial occurred in the spring and the other a few months later in the fall.

    The study authors monitored the participants’ social media use for a week across three platforms ― Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat ― to get a baseline. Then researchers gauged the students’ mental health based on seven different factors: social support, fear of missing out, loneliness, self-acceptance, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression.

    Next, the authors separated the students into groups and conducted the experiment for three weeks. One group was told to keep using social media as usual another group was tasked with limiting social media use to 10 minutes per platform a day. Researchers then looked at how the students fared in the seven categories after the experiment.

    When study volunteers cut down their social media use to 30 minutes per day total, they experienced a “significant improvement in well-being,” exhibiting reduced loneliness and depression, the authors wrote. Anxiety and FOMO decreased in both groups, which researchers said could be due to increased self-monitoring during the experiment portion of the study.

    “It is a little ironic that reducing your use of social media actually makes you feel less lonely,” lead study author Melissa Hunt told ScienceDaily. “Some of the existing literature on social media suggests there’s an enormous amount of social comparison that happens. When you look at other people’s lives, particularly on Instagram, it’s easy to conclude that everyone else’s life is cooler or better than yours.”

    “When you look at other people’s lives, particularly on Instagram, it’s easy to conclude that everyone else’s life is cooler or better than yours.”

    There are a few caveats with this study: The participants only used iPhones in the experiment because the devices can track and provide objective social media app usage data. The study also only monitored students who used Instagram, Facebook and Snapchat, so it doesn’t reflect experiences with other social media platforms (shoutout to anyone who goes down the negative rabbit hole known as Twitter). The study authors also don’t know if these findings could be replicated for another age group.

    All that aside, there is something to be said for limiting social media while still being realistic about the fact that you’re never going to ditch it entirely. Research has shown that excessive Facebook use can contribute to increased depression and loneliness, and a 2014 study found that social media use can create social comparison, which can lead to lower self-esteem.

    Bottom line: We can all benefit from a little break. The marriage status updates, dog filters, sarcastic tweets and food porn photos will still be there when we go back.

    Clarification:Language in this story has been amended to remove the age range for the undergraduate students participating in the study, which the study authors did not specify.


    This Is How Much Time You Should Spend On Social Media Per Day

    It’s no secret that scrolling through endless images and announcements of engagements, vacations, new babies and job promotions can make you feel like you’re not accomplishing anything. But it’s pretty much impossible to log off forever and never look back.

    Here’s the good news: There might be a sweet spot when it comes to the amount of time you spend on social media. Keeping your use down to just 30 minutes a day can lead to better mental health outcomes, according to research being published in December in the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.

    Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania looked at social media use among 143 undergraduate students in two separate trials. One trial occurred in the spring and the other a few months later in the fall.

    The study authors monitored the participants’ social media use for a week across three platforms ― Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat ― to get a baseline. Then researchers gauged the students’ mental health based on seven different factors: social support, fear of missing out, loneliness, self-acceptance, self-esteem, anxiety, and depression.

    Next, the authors separated the students into groups and conducted the experiment for three weeks. One group was told to keep using social media as usual another group was tasked with limiting social media use to 10 minutes per platform a day. Researchers then looked at how the students fared in the seven categories after the experiment.

    When study volunteers cut down their social media use to 30 minutes per day total, they experienced a “significant improvement in well-being,” exhibiting reduced loneliness and depression, the authors wrote. Anxiety and FOMO decreased in both groups, which researchers said could be due to increased self-monitoring during the experiment portion of the study.

    “It is a little ironic that reducing your use of social media actually makes you feel less lonely,” lead study author Melissa Hunt told ScienceDaily. “Some of the existing literature on social media suggests there’s an enormous amount of social comparison that happens. When you look at other people’s lives, particularly on Instagram, it’s easy to conclude that everyone else’s life is cooler or better than yours.”

    “When you look at other people’s lives, particularly on Instagram, it’s easy to conclude that everyone else’s life is cooler or better than yours.”

    There are a few caveats with this study: The participants only used iPhones in the experiment because the devices can track and provide objective social media app usage data. The study also only monitored students who used Instagram, Facebook and Snapchat, so it doesn’t reflect experiences with other social media platforms (shoutout to anyone who goes down the negative rabbit hole known as Twitter). The study authors also don’t know if these findings could be replicated for another age group.

    All that aside, there is something to be said for limiting social media while still being realistic about the fact that you’re never going to ditch it entirely. Research has shown that excessive Facebook use can contribute to increased depression and loneliness, and a 2014 study found that social media use can create social comparison, which can lead to lower self-esteem.

    Bottom line: We can all benefit from a little break. The marriage status updates, dog filters, sarcastic tweets and food porn photos will still be there when we go back.

    Clarification:Language in this story has been amended to remove the age range for the undergraduate students participating in the study, which the study authors did not specify.


    How Often Should You Really Do HIIT Workouts?

    Ahh, HIIT. It’s the workout everybody brags about doing, day in and day out, because they have #BodyGoals that they’re here to, er, hit.

    HIIT, or high-intensity interval training, wasn’t meant to be done every day. And if you’re able to actually bust out that level of intensity five, six, or seven days per week, you’re likely doing it wrong.

    We know — it’s not what you want to hear.

    But these super-quick routines were created so you could perform your chosen form of cardio at maximum effort, says Joey Thurman, certified personal trainer and author of “365 Health and Fitness Hacks That Could Save Your Life.”

    “The idea is to elevate your heart rate for a brief period, followed by resting for a given period,” Thurman explains. “You can train in a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio (sprint for 30 seconds, rest for 30), a 1:2 ratio (sprint for 30 seconds, rest for 1 minute), a 1:3 ratio (sprint for 30 seconds, rest for 1.5 minutes), and so forth.”

    The key, he says, is to go at your maximum effort during the sprints.

    A lot of studies that show the benefits of extremely intense, short bouts of exercise are a result of people working at their give-it-all-you-got effort, says Dalton Wong, certified personal trainer and author of “The Feelgood Plan: Happier, Healthier & Slimmer in 15 Minutes a Day.”

    “True HIIT is like sprinting, and it should make you feel like your gas tank is completely empty,” Wong says. So if you’re doing a 30-second sprint during a HIIT interval, you shouldn’t be able to get to second 31 without wanting to collapse.

    Which means that if you’re able to go for even one second longer — or pencil in another HIIT session tomorrow — you probably didn’t go hard enough. We hate to be so blunt, but that’s the truth.

    Most people aren’t used to pushing themselves as hard as is necessary for HIIT, especially for a HIIT workout that’s as short as 7 or 10 minutes, because it’s extremely uncomfortable.

    We all want the fastest, most efficient way to get in shape so we can do other awesome things with our lives. So the idea of being able to work out for such a short amount of time and get results, rather than slogging away on the treadmill for a longer time, sounds like a no-brainer.

    The first benefit everyone talks about is, of course, the fat burning. “Research shows that intervals can repair your metabolism by reducing inflammation, forcing the body to improve its ability to use and burn energy,” says Thurman.

    This means you’ll burn fat at a faster rate, utilize energy better during workouts, and continue to burn calories long after your workout is done. This is a phenomenon known as EPOC, or excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    Plus, you’ll simply be able to do more during those sweat sessions. “Think of it this way: If I were to have you sprint as far as you could for as long as you could, how long would you last? One minute, two minutes, three minutes?” asks Thurman.

    “By adding rest periods and then going back [to the effort interval], it allows you to cumulatively sprint for a longer period of time. So, if you performed ten 30-second sprints, you’ll sprint for a total of five minutes. [That’s] much longer than anyone could sprint at once.”

    And, when HIIT is done correctly (and paired with a solid nutrition plan), you can blast belly fat and improve heart health. Wewege M, et al. (2017). The effects of high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training on body composition in overweight and obese adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. DOI: 10.1111/obr.12532] [Zhaowei K, et al. (2016). Comparison of high-intensity interval training and moderate-to-vigorous continuous training for cardiometabolic health and exercise enjoyment in obese young women: A randomized controlled trial. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158589

    Glad you asked. The obvious risk is injury. Your risk of getting injured due to overtraining skyrockets when you don’t give your muscle tissue enough time to repair and grow, says Thurman.

    “It falls along the same line of not working the same muscle group when lifting two days in a row — your body, joints, and mind will eventually wear out,” he says.

    And don’t forget: Mental burnout is a real thing. “If you do too much HIIT, after a while your mind will start to lag behind,” says Thurman. “You’ll feel tired, fatigued, and not look forward to your workout. If you’re not mentally invested, your performance will suffer, as well as your form, and that can again lead to overuse and injury.”

    Two to three days a week is a solid amount of HIIT, says Wong, as long as you build in 24 hours of rest and recovery between sessions.

    So if your goal is to work out four times per week, he recommends two HIIT sessions and two resistance training sessions. Whether you go full-body on those resistance days or break it into an upper-body day and a lower-body day is up to you.

    Keep your programming in mind: “If you do leg-intensive resistance training one day, then do HIIT sprints the next, your legs will be sore and not fully recovered for the HIIT,” says Thurman. “Try to schedule a rest day or yoga in between to allow optimal results.”

    Basically, we’re not telling you not to do HIIT. We’re also not telling you to skip exercising on the reg. Fitting in some form of movement each day is good for both your physical and mental health — that’s something all the experts agree on.

    But if you’ve maxed out your three-times-a-week HIIT sessions or are just phoning it in, schedule a yoga class or hop on the bike for a casual ride in the sunshine. You’ve earned it.


    Module 6

    The specificity principle
    - suggests that your adaptations are going to be specific to the demands imposed on the system.

    Progression
    - relates to the systematic and progressive application of load. (reduce risk of overtraining, burnout, injury)

    The principle of diminishing returns
    - suggests that individuals adapt differently at different
    stages of the training cycle. (e.g. non exercise > massive response vs super trained)

    The volume and intensity of training are two key variables that you can manipulate in order
    to achieve the desired overload and progression in your exercise program.

    Volume and intensity are often manipulated in a periodised manner to ensure peak physiological
    condition occurs at a specific point in the training cycle.

    Periodisation of training can also be more complex with many different training units or cycles contributing to the overall training program.
    This can facilitate the simultaneous development of different components of fitness.
    Each of these training cycles is called a macrocycle, mesocycle or microcycle depending on the duration of the training cycle.
    You can see that exercise training programs can range from quite simple to very complex.

    It is recommended that they start exercising at a moderate intensity and increase their volume and intensity steadily to improve fitness. Their perceived exertion should not exceed 3-4 Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and the intensity of the activity should be able to be conducted whilst maintaining a conversation uninterrupted for 60 minutes.

    It is recommended that they start exercising at a moderate intensity and increase their volume and intensity steadily to improve fitness. Their perceived exercertion should not exceed 4-5 RPE and the intensity of the activity should be one that does not cause a noticeable change in breathing rate.

    It is recommended that they start exercising at a light to moderate
    intensity and increase their volume and intensity slowly. Their perceived exertion should not exceed 3-4 RPE and the intensity of the activity should be able to be conducted whilst maintaining a conversation uninterrupted for 30-60 minutes duration.

    Overload: The overload principle suggests that you need to load or stress the system in order to achieve adaptation.

    Specificity: The specificity principle suggests that your adaptations are going to be specific to the demands imposed on the system.

    Progression: Progression relates to the systematic and progressive application of load.

    Diminishing Returns: The principle of diminishing returns suggests that individuals adapt differently at different stages of the training cycle. The greatest gains typically occur in beginners with more experienced exercisers achieving a smaller rate of improvement.

    Frequency, Intensity, Timing, Type

    Overload, Specificity, Progression, Diminishing returns, Reversibility

    Deload, Specialty, Progression, Variability

    1. The level of work performed that is reflected through speed, grade, watts, or intensity level:

    2. The amount of weight lifted:

    3. The frequency and duration of an exercise bout:

    4. The number of sets and repetitions, often includes the time under tension as well:

    Progression is the systematic application of overload to promote long-term benefits and generally follows an inverse relationship in which, when intensity increases, the training volume decreases somewhat proportionally.

    A. FITT is best used to achieve a goal by working out the fitness of the client, intensity, time of day of sessions and the type of exercise
    for the session

    B. FITT concept is best used to establish core foundations, intensity or volume, timing of session and the type such as strength or endurance.

    C. FITT concept is best used to achieve fitness through intensity, timing of the session and the type such as strength or endurance.

    Common signs and symptoms of overtraining include:

    A. A runner planning for a State event in 9 months may plan a 39 week macrocycle to include endurance and intensity. Within this, numerous microcycles of 3-4 week blocks could focus on things such as building endurance, then broken down into mesocycles lasting roughly 1 week that compliment the mesocycle goal such as overloading for endurance adaptations.

    B. A runner planning for a State event in 9 months may plan a 39 week mesocycle to include endurance and intensity Within this, numerous macrocycle 3-4 week blocks could focus on things such as building endurance, then broken down into microcycles lasting roughly 1 week that compliment the mesocycle goal such as overloading for endurance adaptations.

    C. A cyclist planning for a National event in 1 year may plan a 52 week macrocycle to include endurance, intensity, competition and recovery. Within this, numerous mesocycle 3-4 week blocks could focus on things such as endurance or power on the bike, then broken down into microcycles lasting roughly 1 or 2 weeks that compliment the mesocycle goal such as overloading for endurance adaptations.


    Is there more to light therapy dosing?

    While the information laid out here is adequate to measure dose and calculate application time for general use, light therapy dosing is a much more complicated matter, scientifically.

    • J/cm² is how everyone measures dose now, however, the body is 3 dimensional. Dose can also be measured in J/cm³, which is how much energy is applied to a volume of cells, rather than just applied the surface area of skin.
    • Is J/cm² (or ³) even a good way to measure dose? A 1 J/cm² dose can be applied to 5cm² of skin, while the same 1 J/cm² dose could be applied to 50cm² of skin. The dose per area of skin is the same (1J & 1J) in each case, but the total energy applied (5J vs 50J) is vastly different, potentially leading to different systemic outcomes.
    • Different strengths of light can have different effects. We know that the following strength and time combinations give the same total dose, but the results wouldn’t necessarily be the same in studies:
      • 2mW/cm² x 500secs = 1J/cm²
      • 500mW/cm² x 2secs = 1J/cm²

      Effect of exercise intervention dosage on reducing visceral adipose tissue: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

      Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are deleterious fat deposits in the human body and can be effectively reduced by exercise intervention. Despite well-established exercise prescriptions are available, the effective dosage of exercise for reducing VAT requires verification.

      Objectives

      The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine the most effective exercise dosage (modality, intensity, duration, and amount) for decreasing VAT.

      Methods

      Nine databases (EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, Airiti Library, and PerioPath) were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials that objectively assessed VAT. The arms of included studies covered with different exercise modalities and dosage. Relevant databases were searched through February 2020.

      Results

      Of the 34 studies (n = 1962) included in systematic review, 32 (n = 1900) were pooled for pairwise or network meta-analysis. The results indicated that high-intensity interval training (SMD −0.39, 95% CI −0.60 to −0.18) and aerobic exercise (SMD –0.26, 95% CI –0.38 to −0.13) of at least moderate intensity were beneficial for reducing VAT. By contrast, resistance exercise, aerobic exercise combined with resistance exercise, and sprint interval training had no significant effects. No difference in VAT reduction was observed between exercising more or less than 150 min per week. Meta-regression revealed that the effect of VAT reduction was not significantly influenced by an increase in the duration of or amount of exercise in an exercise program. The effective dosage of exercise for reducing VAT was three times per week for 12 to 16 weeks, while duration per session for aerobic exercise was 30–60 min, and either less than 30 min or 30–60 min of high-intensity interval training accomplished sufficient energy expenditure to impact VAT.

      Conclusions

      These results can inform exercise prescriptions given to the general population for improving health by reducing VAT.


      What is the most effective maximum work duration per day? - Psychology

      Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is broadly defined despite high variability in the occurrence and duration of PAF episodes.

      Objective

      The purpose of this study was to identify rhythm patterns in a large cohort of individuals with PAF who wore an ambulatory single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) patch sensor as part of standard clinical care.

      Methods

      We performed a retrospective analysis of longitudinal rhythm data obtained from 13,293 individuals with PAF.

      Results

      In this study, 7934 men and 5359 women with PAF wore an ambulatory single-lead ECG patch sensor for 11.4 days on average, experiencing 1,041,504 PAF episodes. The median daily rate of PAF was 1.21 episodes per day (interquartile range [IQR] 0.31–4.99), and the median maximum duration per individual was 7.5 hours (IQR 2.4–18.6 hours). There was an inverse relationship between the duration of PAF episodes and the frequency in which they occurred, which became pronounced at moderate and high overall burdens of AF. This produced a spectrum of PAF flanked by 2 distinct subtypes of the disease: the staccato subtype, characterized by many, short AF episodes and the legato subtype, characterized by fewer, longer episodes. Longer but less frequent episodes became more common with increasing age. Only 49.4% of individuals experienced an episode in the first 24 hours of monitoring, increasing to 89.7% after 1 week of monitoring.

      Conclusion

      We identified subtypes of the disease that we labeled staccato and legato. Although further study is required, these subtypes may result from differing elements of pathophysiology and disease progression, and may confer differing stroke risks.


      How Much Time You Should Actually Spend Reading Each Day, According To Science

      According to a 2014 Time magazine article, Americans read (in their words) “a paltry 19 minutes a day.” (19 minutes is pretty paltry.) The stat comes from a study conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, who also noted that younger Americans, aged 25-34, read just four minutes a day — really, who are you people? — while American adults over 75 read upwards of one hour each day — aka: my peeps.

      Now, as a book-lover, I just have to say: the ideal amount of time to spend reading each day is basically all of the time. But, unrealistic is that is, (because: bills, food, laundry) at least as much time as is available which, I promise you, is more than four minutes, no matter how busy I might be. But, national stats and personal preferences aside, is there actually a science-backed number of minutes you should spend reading each day? After all, we already know reading helps improve memory and cognitive function, increases empathy and reduces stress, can improve social skills, and actually increases not only your intelligence but your learning capacity as well. Chances are, all those benefits aren’t happening in just four minutes.

      It turns out, there are some science-backed guidelines for how much you should read every day. And the numbers may surprise you.


      Transfer to an Alternate Position

      You may choose to temporarily transfer the employee to an available alternative position for which the employee is qualified and which better accommodates recurring periods of intermittent or reduced schedule leave than does the employee’s regular position.

      Temporary transfer is only permitted if an employee needs intermittent leave or leave on a reduced leave schedule that is foreseeable based on planned medical treatment for the employee, a family member, or a covered service member, including during a period of recovery from one’s own serious health condition, a serious health condition of a spouse, parent, son, or daughter, or a serious injury or illness of a covered service member, or if the employer agrees to permit intermittent or reduced schedule leave for the birth of a child or for placement of a child for adoption or foster care.

      The alternative position must have equivalent pay and benefits, but does not have to have equivalent duties. The employer may increase the pay and benefits of an existing alternative position, to make them equivalent to the pay and benefits of the employee’s regular job.

      You may also transfer the employee to a part-time job with the same hourly rate of pay and benefits, provided the employee is not required to take more leave than is medically necessary. For example, an employee desiring to take leave in increments of 4 hours per day could be transferred to a half-time job, or could remain in the employee’s same job on a part-time schedule, paying the same hourly rate as the employee’s previous job and enjoying the same benefits.

      You may not eliminate benefits which otherwise would not be provided to part-time employees however, you may proportionately reduce benefits (e.g., vacation leave) where the employer’s normal practice is to base such benefits on the number of hours worked.

      Unlike a “light-duty” assignment, a transfer to an alternative position does not require the employee’s consent. Beware, however, if the employee is also protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act and can do his or her existing job with reasonable accommodation, you may not be able to transfer him or her.

      In the next installment, we’ll discuss managing intermittent leave and how it applies to fluctuating work schedules.


      Move More and Sit Less

      Older adults should move more and sit less throughout the day. Keep in mind, some physical activity is better than none. Older adults who sit less and do any amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity gain some health benefits. Your health benefits will also increase with the more physical activity that you do.

      Learn more about how to measure your physical fitness level.

      If you&rsquore 65 years of age or older, are generally fit, and have no limiting health conditions, you can follow the recommendations listed below.

      Want to learn more about important health benefits for older adults? Check out the Move Your Way SM Factsheet for Older Adults pdf icon external icon . [PDF-1.3MB]



Comments:

  1. Mames

    I'll die of laughter

  2. Vuhn

    it seems even funnier :)

  3. Tobie

    Bravo, this excellent phrase is necessary just by the way

  4. Sibley

    Yes you are talented



Write a message